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Male Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. An estimated 15% of couples meet this criterion and are considered infertile, with approximately 35% due to female factors alone, 30% due to male factors alone, 20% due to a combination of female and male factors, and 15% unexplained. Conditions of the male that affect fertility are still generally underdiagnosed and undertreated.

Causes of infertility in men can be explained by deficiencies in sperm formation, concentration (eg, oligospermia [too few sperm], azoospermia [no sperm in the ejaculate]), or transportation. This general division allows an appropriate workup of potential underlying causes of infertility and helps define a course of action for treatment.

The initial evaluation of the male patient should be rapid, noninvasive, and cost-effective, as nearly 70% of conditions that cause infertility in men can be diagnosed with history, physical examination, and hormonal and semen analysis alone. More detailed, expensive, and invasive studies can then be ordered if necessary.

Treatment options are based on the underlying etiology and range from optimizing semen production and transportation with medical therapy or surgical procedures to complex assisted reproduction techniques. Technological advancements make conceiving a child possible with as little as one viable sperm and one egg. Although the workup was traditionally delayed until a couple was unable to conceive for 12 months, evaluation may be initiated at the first visit in slightly older couples.

Failure to ovulate

Ovulatory disorders are one of the most common reasons why women are unable to conceive, and account for 30% of women's infertility. Fortunately, approximately 70% of these cases can be successfully treated by the use of drugs such as Clomiphene and Menogan/Repronex. See more information on the causes of failed ovulation.

Poorly functioning fallopian tubes

Tubal disease affects approximately 25% of infertile couples and varies widely, ranging from mild adhesions to complete tubal blockage. Treatment for tubal disease is most commonly surgery and, owing to the advances in microsurgery and lasers, success rates (defined as the number of women who become pregnant within one year of surgery) are as high as 30% overall, with certain procedures having success rates up to 65%. See the main causes of tubal damage.

Endometriosis

Approximately 10% of infertile couples are affected by endometriosis. Endometriosis affects five million US women, 6-7% of all females. In fact, 30-40% of patients with endometriosis are infertile. This is two to three times the rate of infertility in the general population.

For women with endometriosis, the monthly fecundity (chance of getting pregnant) diminishes by 12 to 36%. This condition is characterized by excessive growth of the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. Growth occurs not only in the uterus but also elsewhere in the abdomen, such as in the fallopian tubes, ovaries and the pelvic peritoneum.

A positive diagnosis can only be made by diagnostic laparoscopy, a test that allows the physician to view the uterus, fallopian tubes, and pelvic cavity directly. The symptoms often associated with endometriosis include heavy, painful and long menstrual periods, urinary urgency, rectal bleeding and premenstrual spotting. Sometimes, however, there are no symptoms at all, owing to the fact that there is no correlation between the extent of the disease and the severity of the symptoms.

 

 
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